首页 >>雅思口语|Part3抽象类话题:Empathy同理心
雅思口语|Part3抽象类话题:Empathy同理心
发布来源: Sharon黄文琪 发布时间:2021-11-25

be hit with the great wave of feelings受到巨大情感波动的影响

You know when you're reading a really good book and something intense happens to one of your favorite characters, so you're also hit with the great wave of feelings. 你知道,你在读一本好书时,会紧张书里你喜欢的角色,所以你会受到巨大情感波动的影响。



understand and relate to other people's feelings理解感受他人的感觉

You might feel a little silly as you reach for a box of tissues, but it's a normal human thing to understand and relate to other people's feelings, even fictional people.当你伸手去拿纸巾时,可能会觉得有点儿傻,但是理解感受他人的感觉很正常,即使是虚幻人物的。


empathy同理心

We call this empathy.我们称这种情感为同理心。



involves a complex network of brain areas 涉及到一个复杂的大脑区域网络

process things like emotion, thought, and understanding social cues处理情感、思考和理解社会暗示等问题

Empathy might seem pretty straightforward, but we know from research that it involves a complex network of brain areas that process things like emotion, thought, and understanding social cues.同理心似乎很简单,但是我们从研究中知道,它涉及到一个复杂的大脑区域网络,这一网络处理情感、思考和理解社会暗示等问题。


aren't fully developed until late adolescence or early adulthood直到青春期晚期或成年早期才完全发育

And many of these brain regions aren't fully developed until late adolescence or early adulthood.许多大脑区域直到青春期晚期或成年早期才完全发育。


get it right弄清楚

So it takes a while for little kids to get it right.所以孩子们需要一段时间才能正确理解。


understand the different pieces of the empathy puzzle了解同理心之谜的不同内容

emotional, motivational, and cognitive情绪、动机和认知

To understand the different pieces of the empathy puzzle, scientists often divide it into three components: emotional, motivational, and cognitive. 为了了解同理心之谜的不同内容,科学家通常将其分为三个部分:情绪、动机和认知。


study how kids behave in different situations研究不同情境下孩子们的表现

And to figure out how and when empathy develops naturally, researchers study how kids behave in different situations.研究人员为了弄清楚同情心是如何以及什么时候自然发展起来的,研究了不同情境下孩子们的表现。


share someone else's feelings分享别人的感受

The emotional part refers to sharing someone else's feelings.情绪部分指的是分享别人的感受。


get poked with a needle被针戳

monitor brain activity监测大脑活动

For example, researchers have tested this by monitoring brain activity as adults watched someone else's hand getting poked with a needle. 比如,当成人看着别人的手被针戳时,研究人员通过监测他们的大脑活动进行了测试。


see someone in pain看到有人痛苦

This suggests that we actually feel something similar when we see someone in pain.这表明,我们看到有人痛苦时,实际也会有类似的感受。


develop pretty quickly似乎发展得很快

And it seems like this kind of empathy may develop pretty quickly.这种同理心似乎发展得很快。


make sounds or facial expressions发出声音或有面部表情

We think babies as young as 6 to 8 months show early signs of it, when they make sounds or facial expressions that mirror others who are upset. 我们认为6到8个月大的婴儿就出现了同理心早期迹象,当他们发出声音或有面部表情时,会反映出其他人的不安。


comfort a friend when they've lost a pet or a family member安慰一个失去宠物或家人的朋友

Next up is the motivational component, which is basically the urge to do something for someone else's well-being, like wanting to comfort a friend when they've lost a pet or a family member.接下来是动机部分,它基本上是为了别人的幸福而做事的欲望,比如想要安慰一个失去宠物或家人的朋友。


mirror each other's emotions early on很早就能反映出彼此的情绪

And even though children might mirror each other's emotions early on, it takes a few years for this motivational part to kick in.即使孩子们可能很早就能反映出彼此的情绪,但动机部分要花几年才能发挥作用。


share their favorite stuffed animal分享他们最喜欢的毛绒玩具

When they're about 3 to 6 years old, kids might show behaviors like sharing their favorite stuffed animal to make someone else feel better when they seem sad. 当他们3-6岁时,可能会表现出某些行为,比如分享他们最喜欢的毛绒玩具,让别人在看起来悲伤的时候感觉好些。


the most complicated part of empathy同理心最复杂的部分

Now the third, and maybe most complicated part of empathy is the cognitive component.第三部分也许是同理心最复杂的部分,那就是认知部分。



take another person's perspective从另一个人的角度出发

understand why it would make them feel the way they do理解这些经历为什么会让他们有这种感觉

It's the ability to take another person's perspective, think about their experience, and understand why it would make them feel the way they do.
这是一种能力,从另一个人的角度出发,思考他们的经历,理解这些经历为什么会让他们有这种感觉。


requires some mental gymnastics需要脑力体操

it's easy to mistake for selfishness or meanness很容易被误解为自私或卑鄙

This requires some mental gymnastics, so it's not a huge surprise that this seems to be the hardest part of empathy for young children to do well, and it's easy to mistake for selfishness or meanness.这需要脑力体操,所以它对于儿童来说似乎是最难的部分,以至于他们做不好,就不足为奇了。而且它很容易被误解为自私或卑鄙。


can't describe it with their cognitive and language abilities无法用自己的认知和语言能力来描述它

Some researchers think that even if young kids might get that people have different feelings and perspectives, they can't describe it with their cognitive and language abilities.一些研究人员认为,小孩子们即使可能有不同的感受和观点,也无法用自己的认知和语言能力来描述它。



process complex information处理复杂信息

Basically, their brains are more able to process complex information.基本上,他们的大脑更能处理复杂信息。


talk with kids about their emotions和孩子们说说他们的情绪

Talking with kids about their emotions, suggesting ways they could show empathy, or even reading stories about feelings can help them figure this stuff out.和孩子们说说他们的情绪,暗示他们可以表现出同理心,甚至读一些关于感觉的故事,这些能帮助他们解决这些问题。




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