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老雅•练词汇|20个雅思写作高分词汇(3)
发布来源: 唐老雅英语写作工作室 发布时间:2021-11-24


文/老雅


雅思写作高分词汇系列里,老雅已经指出,雅思写作(即使高分段写作)并不需要特别高端的词汇。老雅的基本观点是:如果能准确使用4500左右的词汇,就能达到写作7分的词汇标准。也就是说,在一篇250字左右的雅思作文中,如果准确使用了10-15个在4500这个幅度内的词汇,那么在词汇幅度这一评分标准中就能达到高分,而其余的240字则完全可以使用2500幅度(也就是高中阶段词汇)内的词汇。用这种词汇策略,既确保了词汇幅度,又能最大限度地保证表达的准确性,不会出现莫名其妙的词汇使用错误。本系列的前两篇,老雅已经介绍了10个词汇,分别为available, specific, alternative, afford, primarily, involve, justify, excessive, eventually, apparently,并以雅思真题为例,展示了这些词汇的具体用法。本次将继续介绍另外5个高分词汇。需要再次说明的是,本系列中的所谓万能词汇,是指这些词汇可以在多数题材中都可用到,因此考生既可以为了意思表达需要而使用这些词汇,也可以为了使用这些词汇而调整需要表达的意思。


万能词汇1confine


confine的意思为……控制/限制在……范围内,通常用作词组confine...to...(把......限定在......比如:


Health officials have successfully confined the epidemic to the area. 卫生官员们已经成功地将该传染病控制在这个地区。

They decided not to let their new dog run loose, confining it to a fenced enclosure during the day. 他们决定不让他们的新狗到处乱跑,白天把它关在有围栏的围圈里。


以下看老雅在其原创雅思真题高分范文中如何使用这个词汇。


An organisation aiming at solving local issues should spend its money helping people who live in the same country, but it should not confine itself to a single country if an organisation sets its eyes on global issues. 致力于解决区域问题的机构应该将善款用于帮助生活在同一国家的人,但是如果一个机构关注全球问题,那它就不应该局限在一个国家了。2016/08/20慈善机构应该只帮助本国人吗?


But we all know that confinement to oneself is no good, no matter how many friends or fans you may have online. As part of the solution to the problem, I would suggest everybody have an “Internet-free moment”. 但是我们都知道封闭自我不好,无论你在网上有多少朋友或者粉丝。为了解决这个问题,我提出一个方案,建议每个人都有一个无网络时刻2016/9/24城市居民不再互相交往的原因及解决办法


However, it does not follow that university students must confine themselves to the library and the classroom. Quite the opposite, they ought to engage in as many extracurricular activities as possible, for if the academic study makes them prepared intellectually, these club activities may be helpful to their future career in many different ways. 然而,这并不意味着大学生必须局限于图书馆和教室。相反,他们应该尽可能多地从事课外活动:如果学业准备了他们的知识,这些俱乐部的活动可以用许多不同的方式帮助他们未来的职业生涯。(2017/8/26大学生应该参加课外活动吗?


With dwindled outdoor areas, people will find themselves confined to the limited number of indoor activities. If in the past they were able to engage in such activities as walking, gardening, weeding, and planting in their backyard, when they got back home from work, now what people can do is sitting in the sofa and watching TV. 随着室外区域的减少,人们会发现自己局限于有限的室内活动。如果过去下班回家后,他们能在后院从事散步、园艺、除草、种树等活动,现在人们能做的就是坐在沙发上看电视。(2020/1/16室外空间越来越少是好还是坏?


万能词汇2derive

    

        derive的基本意思为“获得,得到;衍生”,相当于get, obtain,通常用于词组derive ... from...(从......获得;从......衍生而来)。比如:


    Mr. Ying is one of those happy people who derive pleasure from helping others. 英先生是那种助人为乐的快活人。

This word is derived from a Greek word. 这个词是从一个希腊词汇衍生而来的。


以下看derive在老雅原创范文中的使用情况。


Further still, people can perhaps derive more happiness and satisfaction from their success in individual sports, and this sense of self-recognition is an essential skill in their work and life. 此外,人们可能从个人运动的成功中获得更多的幸福和满足,这种自我认同感是他们工作和生活中必不可少的技能。2018/9/29,团队活动比个人活动能教我们更多生活技能吗?


万能词汇3compel


Compel绝对算得上一个万能词汇,使用非常广泛,表示强迫;迫使,意思相当于force, make,搭配是compel somebody to do something(强迫某人做某事)。比如:


    The heavy rain compelled us to stay indoors. 大雨迫使我们留在家里。


以下看compel在老雅范文中是如何使用的。


Except for the very few who may take art as their lifelong career, the great majority of students will not get a job in relation to art when they finish their high school. Besides, what is the point of compelling a student who has no interest in art to spend many hours restlessly in the art classes? 除了极少数学生会将艺术作为终身事业,绝大多数学生高中毕业后都不会从事任何与艺术相关的工作。此外,如果一个学生对艺术不感兴趣,那么强迫他在艺术课上心神不宁地耗几个小时有什么意义?2017/1/7,艺术课程应该成为高中必修课吗?)


However, I believe the intensified competition resulting from the arrival of the foreign food is beneficial to the long-term development of the local food industry, because it will compel the local food companies to improve the quality of their products, which in turn will make them more competitive in the global market. 然而,我相信,随着外国食品到来而引起的激烈竞争对本地食品业的长远发展是有好处的,因为它会迫使本地食品公司改进产品质量,这反过来会让它们在国际市场上更具竞争力。2018/5/13,食用进口食品利大于弊吗?)


For example, a paper-making factory will be more careful with its wastes if it is compelled to pay a tremendous amount of money for the water it pollutes, and a car owner may choose to use public transport if he is made to pay an extra pollution fee for driving. 例如,如果强迫造纸厂为其污染的水支付巨额费用,它就会更加小心处理其废物;如果让车主为驾驶而支付额外的污染费,他有可能选择使用公共交通工具。2019/10/26,该谁来负责清理环境?)


万能词汇4expose


expose本意为“揭穿;暴露”,但常用于表达“把......置于(某种不利情况)”的意思,用于词组expose...to...,其名词形式为exposure比如:


It's very foolish of the commander to expose his men to unnecessary risks. 这个指挥官让士兵们冒不必要的危险真是太愚蠢了。

Don’t expose your skin to the sun for too long at noon, or it will easily get burnt. 正午的时候不要让皮肤在阳光下曝晒太久,否则很容易晒伤。


以下我们看expose / exposure在老雅范文中是如何被使用的。


Besides, as many secondary school students are not yet mature intellectually and mentally, the excessive exposure to international news may actually have negative influence on their ways of looking at their own country. 此外,许多中学生在智力和精神上都还没有成熟,过度接触国际新闻实际上可能会负面影响他们看待自己的国家。(2020/8/16,中学生应该学习国际新闻课吗?


As I see it, the excessive exposure to these criminal scenes will negatively influence newspaper readers and TV viewers, thus increasing the likelihood of their committing the same crimes in real life, but to restrict them on media is quite another story. 在我看来,看到太多类似犯罪场景将对报纸读者和电视观众产生负面影响,从而增加他们在现实生活中犯下同样罪行的可能性,但在媒体上限制这些描写则是另一回事。2020/10/24,是否应该限制报纸电视中的犯罪描写?)


Catering to the psychological needs of children, many advertisements describe the world in highly imaginative and unrealistic manners. For instance, when they want to promote their doll weapons, they will describe the world as a place full of bad guys. A child exposed to such advertising may develop a deep sense of hostility to the world. 为了迎合孩子的心理需求,很多广告用极其富于想象力和不现实的方式描述这个世界。比如说,当广告商想要推广武器玩具时,他们会描述一个充满了坏蛋的世界。一个孩子若是处于这样的广告环境下可能会对世界有很深的敌意。2016/2/20,儿童广告应该被禁止吗?)


万能词汇5exclusively


exclusively来自于exclude(把......排除在外),意思为排他地,唯一地,相当于only比如:


Today he was able to focus his message exclusively on the economy. 今天他做到了将重点全部聚焦在经济方面。

Up till that time, his interest had focused almost exclusively on fully mastering the skills and techniques of his craft. 在那时为止,他的兴趣几乎全部聚焦在全面掌握工艺技能和技术上。


以下句子摘自老雅高分范文。


The government in any country provides funding for the development of its higher education, but there are divided opinions about where this government funding should go. Should it go exclusively to those “top students” or indiscriminately to all students? 任何国家的政府都为本国高等教育的发展提供资助,但关于政府资助到底该用在哪里却有不同观点。它是该只用于优秀学生还是不加区分地用于所有学生?2017/6/24,政府应该只资助优秀学生吗?)


Charity organisations are supposed to offer help to people in great need, such as those suffering from incurable diseases, natural disasters and unexpected accidents. Yet one issue is still in debate: to whom should the money of charity organisations go, exclusively to people who live in the same country as the organisations, or to all people regardless of where they live? 慈善组织应为急需帮助的人提供帮助,比如身患不治之症的人,遭受自然灾害的人,和遭遇意外事故的人。然而,有一个问题仍在争论中:慈善组织的钱到底该用在谁身上,应该用于与机构同一国家的人,还是用于所有人,不管他们出身在哪?2016/08/20慈善机构应该只帮助本国人吗?


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